Albert Einstein - Peace in the Atomic Age
February 12, 1950
"I am grateful to you for the opportunity to express my conviction in this most important political
The idea of achieving security through national armament is, at the present state of military technique, a
disastrous illusion. On the part of the United States this illusion has been particularly fostered by the fact that
this country succeeded first in producing an atomic bomb. The belief seemed to prevail that in the end it were
possible to achieve decisive military superiority.
In this way, any potential opponent would be intimidated, and security, so ardently desired by all of us,
brought to us and all of humanity. The maxim which we have been following during these last five years has been, in
short: security through superior military power, whatever the cost.
The armament race between the U.S.A. and U.S.S.R., originally supposed to be a preventive measure, assumes
hysterical character. On both sides, the means to mass destruction are perfected with feverish haste - behind the
respective walls of secrecy. The H-bomb appears on the public horizon as a probably attainable goal.
If successful, radioactive poisoning of the atmosphere and hence annihilation of any life on earth has been
brought within the range of technical possibilities. The ghostlike character of this development lies in its
apparently compulsory trend. Every step appears as the unavoidable consequence of the preceding one. In the end, it
beckons more and more clearly general annihilation.
Is there any way out of this impasse created by man himself? All of us, and particularly those who are
responsible for the attitude of the U.S. and the U.S.S.R., should realized that we may have vanquished an external
enemy, but have been incapable of getting rid of the mentality created by the war.
It is impossible to achieve peaces as long as every single action is taken with a possible future conflict in
view. The leading point of view of all political action should therefore be: What can we do to bring about a
peaceful co-existence and even loyal cooperation of the nations?
The first problem is to do away with mutual fear and distrust. Solemn renunciation of violence (not only with
respect to means of mass destruction) is undoubtedly necessary.
Such renunciation, however, can only be effective if at the same time a supra-national judicial and executive
body is set up empowered to decide questions of immediate concern to the security of the nations. Even a
declaration of the nations to collaborate loyally in the realization of such a "restricted world government" would
considerably reduce the imminent danger of war.
In the last analysis, every kind of peaceful cooperation among men is primarily based on mutual trust and only
secondly on institutions such as courts of justice and police. This holds for nations as well as for individuals.
And the basis of trust is loyal give and take."